Meredith G. Kline Ordained Servant: December 2021 Also in this issue by John W. Mallin III by Danny E. Olinger by Alan D. Strange by Robert Letham by Bryan D. Estelle by T. David Gordon by John Donne (1572–1631)
Ordained Servant: December 2021
Also in this issue
by John W. Mallin III
by Danny E. Olinger
by Alan D. Strange
by Robert Letham
by Bryan D. Estelle
by T. David Gordon
by John Donne (1572–1631)
One of the structural principles of the Apocalypse is to set before us different series of pictures relating not so much to successive events as to the same events under different aspects, each series complete in itself and inviting us to think less of its temporal relations to those which precede and follow it, than of the new and different light in which it presents an idea common to itself and them.
This statement represents fairly the synchronous structure of Revelation to be defended in this paper (provided that “the same events” is understood in a very broad sense, as indeed William Milligan does, and not as specific events recorded in history books). The danger is particularly strong in the case of the recapitulationist that the natural desire to find symmetry in the structure will betray him into sacrificing the thought, at least as to proper emphasis, for the sake of establishing a certain formally symmetrical arrangement of the visions. For instance, William Hendriksen, in dealing with the latter chapters, is consistent with his main principle that there are seven parallel sections and “each of them spans the entire dispensation from the first to the second coming of Christ.” In finding indications of the beginning of the Christian dispensation here he is correct; however, the overwhelmingly predominant thought of final judgment pervading the entirety of this section is not sufficiently evident in Hendriksen’s exposition. This is symptomatic of his general fault in not applying adequately his principle that “there is progress in eschatological emphasis.” Whatever may be its dangers of being abused, however, this structural principle of synchronism or parallelism or recapitulation is valid and necessary to a proper interpretation of Revelation. This thesis is here developed by dealing with certain introductory questions, by the exegesis of the climaxes of the main divisions and the consideration of related problems, and by a more direct refutation of the successive-judgment view.
To clear the way for the study of the text and to ground the Revelation of John in biblical apocalyptic, we evaluate three objections of a general hermeneutical character elaborated by David Brown from Marcus Dods’s Introduction to the New Testament against the understanding of Revelation as a presentation largely of ideas rather than events, which historically, and not naturally exegetically, has gone hand in hand with recapitulation.
1. It is “out of keeping with the general purpose of apocalyptic literature,” which is to treat of the “the Kingdom of God oppressed by hostile worldly powers; in both books (i.e., Daniel and Revelation) successive periods in the history of this struggle are definitely though symbolically predicted.”
The idea of the world’s hostility is true enough, as is that of the final triumph of God’s kingdom, which he later adds; but that “successive periods in history” need be involved as of the essence of true apocalyptic is erroneous. Undeniably there are four successive historical empires before the founding of God’s kingdom in Daniel, but far from Revelation being required to share this trait, it would be in direct contradiction to Daniel if it did so. For in Daniel, the coming of God’s kingdom in Christ—the stone smiting the image—does away with world powers. We do not—cannot—interpret this literally, but we do insist that the Old Testament prophet’s spiritual outlook on the state of affairs introduced by the establishment of the messianic kingdom be shared by his New Testament successor. Daniel considered all kingdoms as in principle, or as to the decisive issue, destroyed by Christ’s coming and unworthy of being specifically designated as world empires once the one and only true world Empire of Messiah had been founded. In accord with this is Daniel 7 where the latter issue of the fourth beast, during whose sway Christ’s kingdom is established, is represented by ten horns—ten, the symbolic number of completeness—designating the opposition to Messiah’s people that would develop after the decline of Rome, everywhere throughout the earth, and down through all the centuries to the Judgment—but in no wise describing successive, specific, historical periods. The only exception to this is the detailed emphasis on Antiochus Epiphanes’s anti-type, the little horn which appears among the ten. To this eschatological outlook Revelation is true, for it deals only with the general principles of the world’s opposition to the now established kingdom of God, with the one exception of the final stage of the beast’s activity. For a fuller discussion, see below: The Eschatological Perspective of Revelation.
2. It “fails to present a sufficient motive for its composition.”
First, it is close to presumption to judge what constitutes a proper motive for God’s including any specific form of revelation in his Word. Second, such a consideration is highly subjective, and this is aggravated by Brown’s unjustly limiting the “ideas” to God’s sovereignty, providence, goodness, and final triumph in the vaguest of senses. Third, many of those holding the view Brown disparages find in Revelation thus understood the fairest gem in Scripture, uniting in a fitting consummation of the divine Word the most precious themes of the Bible, illuminating the prophetic element of the Old Testament, elaborating and unifying the eschatological outlines inherent in the teaching of Jesus, Paul, and the rest of the New Testament, and providing an inspiration by its solemn majesty that is not afforded so impressively anywhere else. Fourth, it is a poor substitute for such to offer, as Brown does, a system of historical events—often of the most obscure, trivial, and irrelevant nature—which but vaguely illustrate major Bible themes and would provide scarcely any practical comfort to the afflicted church.
3. It “fails to present a sufficiently definite guide through its intricacies,” wavering as it does between predictive and more general contents.
Quite on the contrary, grounding the symbolism in other scriptural symbolism is the only legitimate guide. If some portions are more specific predictions than others, no problem is presented, for the more specific portions are always at the beginning and the close of the gospel age where the really epoch-making, eschatological inbreaking of God’s redemptive acts in the world’s history transpires. The long intermediate period is similar enough throughout to describe by the general principles or ideas unfolding therein. Again, Brown’s system of historical events is no improvement, to say the least, for the events move in a narrow rut altogether out of keeping with the universalism of the New Testament and are so hopelessly without demonstrable scriptural relation to the symbols of Revelation that there are as many sets of events as there are proponents of this system of interpretation.
If we are to speak of the beginnings and endings of various series or cycles of visions within the Apocalypse, it is necessary to have the outline of the book in mind. The divisions which commend themselves to me are these:
Introduction — 1:1–8
The Church Imperfect in the World — 1:9–3:22
The Seven Seals — 4:1–8:1
The Seven Trumpets — 8:2–11:19
The Deeper Conflict — 12:1–14:20
The Seven Bowls — 15:1–16:21
The Final Judgments — 17:1–21:8
The Church Perfect in Glory — 21:9–22:5
Conclusion — 22:6–21
The only division of which the bounds are at variance with the usual ones adopted by recapitulationists is that of ‘The Final Judgments’ (17:1–21:8). Some demonstration seems required:
1. Within these bounds all the main characters previously introduced are dealt with in respect to their final destinies: Babylon and the Beasts in 17:1–19:21; Satan in 20:1–10; unbelievers in 20:11–15; and overcomers in 21:1–8. This unity of theme is much disregarded but appears to me decisive and is confirmed by the following considerations:
2. This section begins with one of the seven angels that had the seven bowls coming to John and saying, “Come hither,” promising to show the judgment on the harlot-Babylon with whom are associated the kings of the earth and earth-dwellers who sinned with her. So, the next section, if divided as here suggested, begins (21:9) with the angel of the seven bowls series coming to John with the invitation, “Come hither,” promising now to show him the bride, the wife of the Lamb. The objection cannot be pressed that the material in 17:1–21:8 exceeds the statement in 17:1–2 of what is to be shown the Seer. For although nothing is said in 17:1–2 of the Beast, the harlot appears at once (17:3) in relation to the Scarlet-colored Beast, and this is undeniably within the proper bounds of this division. The various characters are so closely related that in the discussion of this theme of final judgments they all of necessity appear in relation to Babylon and become legitimate subjects to develop in this section.
3. “Their (i.e., sinners’) part shall be in the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone; which is the second death,” (21:8), supplies a fitting climax to the theme of judgment, especially since judgment on evil ones predominates in this section. Its appropriateness as the closing verse of this division appears also in that this is the last statement in the Revelation dealing in a positive fashion with the destruction of the wicked. It is true that 21:27a mentions sinners as not entering into the Holy City, but the obvious intention of this is to describe the perfection of the city (compare 21:26 and 21:27b) in a negative way, not the destiny of sinners.
4. If the division is made at 20:1, as by the majority of recapitulationists, the resultant division would be the only major one in Revelation not marked by obvious formal boundaries, if not in the first verse, at least in those immediately following (compare 8:3ff). The amillennialist is wont to do this thinking, perhaps, to strengthen the case for his interpretation of 20:1–10 thereby, whereas the premillennialist is more likely to point to the series of “And I saw” phrases (19:11, 17, 19; 20:1, 4, 11; 21:1) and insist that to make a major division at 20:1 is to fly in the face of the obvious formal indications which become impressive by their very accumulation. The latter is correct—on this point. It does not avail to claim that the introduction of a new character, Satan, in 20:1–10, constitutes a new major theme. Just because a red horse gallops forth at the opening of the second seal, nobody will claim the second seal is a new theme since the preceding and following seals introduce different horses! The seals unify all. So, Satan is introduced to develop the same theme of Final Judgment which both precedes and follows 20:1–10 and unifies all.
As a matter of fact, however, I think this strengthens the amillennial view of 20:1–10 since it makes these verses of one piece with what has preceded. Then just as the discussion of the Beast’s final judgment took us back to the beginning of the Christian era (17:8, 10), so the binding of Satan (20:2–3) may readily be understood as going back to the same point before his final judgment is presented (20:10). On this basis, the newness of the main character in 20:1–10 can be appealed to, to show how unlikely it would be for these verses to follow chapter nineteen in chronological succession.
The most conclusive feature in the proof that the major divisions of the Apocalypse are parallel in their temporal scope rather than chronologically successive is that the climax of each formal division is the end of the gospel age. Further confirmation arises from the observation of the same phenomenon at the climax of certain parenthetical visions contained within the boundaries of the major divisions. The seven letters to the churches precede the visions proper—see below on progression in the Apocalypse—and do not close with a picture of the end of this age. Futurists who claim that 4:1 on deals with the final segment of this age only, usually torture the seven letters into the form of a historical succession leading up to the end, but to no avail.
SEALS: The seals reach the end of the age already in their sixth member (6:12–17).
(a) The vision is beyond doubt based on Jesus’s Olivet Discourse. There these astronomical phenomena and the terror of the unbelieving accompany “the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.” The cataclysm of the sixth seal is, therefore, also the end.
(b) “The great day of their wrath is come”—ἦλθεν (ēlthen) (6:17). This “great day” in Scripture is the consummation of all things. (Compare 1 Thess. 5:2–3; Mal. 4:1; Joel 2:10–11). Swete takes the language as symbolical of national-social changes and decay toward the end, and therefore at this verse, though recognizing that the language refers to the end itself, he is forced to makeshift, “fear anticipates the actual event—there have been epochs in history when the conscience of mankind has antedated the judgment and believed it imminent.” Fatal to this is the obvious fact that 6:17 is no longer in the first person as 6:16’s “Fall on us, and hide us.” This is the inspired comment of the Seer on what has preceded and cannot possibly be construed as the mistaken notion of the terror or conscience-stricken. The only reason for so construing it is that an anti-recapitulation view demands such. I believe this is the most vulnerable spot in the entire book for the opponents of our view who can elsewhere present a somewhat plausible interpretation by calling all the climaxes anticipations or interludes and by appealing to their telescopic-structure concept. None of these escapes works here. The case for the non-recapitulationist absolutely breaks on 6:17.
(c) The lists of natural catastrophes and varieties of unbelieving men affected by this judgment is in each case seven, the number of divine completeness, especially in dealing with the world; this is emphasized by the πᾶς (pas) before the last two members of each list.
(d) The characteristic of wrath is not appropriate to the Lamb during the time when the sincere offer of salvation is being made based on the Lamb that was slain. Such is appropriate only when the day of salvation is past, and those who have rejected him receive their due.
(e) The removal of the “heaven” (6:14) corresponds to the heavens fleeing away in connection with the Great White Throne Judgment (20:11), which is admittedly the end.
Since the sixth seal has introduced the great day of God’s wrath, what are we to expect in the seventh seal? There is much dispute as to what constitutes the contents of this seal. The answers range from one verse, 8:1, to the whole of the Apocalypse from 8:1 on. This is probably the most crucial single point in the book for an understanding of the structure.
Düsterdieck presents a telescopic structure of the Apocalypse whereby each of the seals, trumpets, and bowls-series evolves out of the preceding one. He argues at length against recapitulation and in favor of temporal succession, largely on the basis of the seventh seal. We are led to expect by the crisis to which things have come at the sixth seal, the climactic effect of which is heightened by the visions of chapter seven, that the opening of the seventh seal will reveal the extreme end and final catastrophe, and that with “a certain fulness of significant contents.” This expectation is not at all met if we limit the contents of the seventh seal to “there followed a silence in heaven about the space of half an hour” (8:1). It is fully met if we accept the view that the trumpets and all the rest of Revelation evolve out of this seventh seal and form its contents.
In answer to these remarks of Düsterdieck we advance the following considerations:
1. The sixth seal does not lead us to expect a final catastrophe for the simple reason that it is itself the final catastrophe that befalls this fallen world. Beyond the cosmic cataclysm and the unspeakable terror of eternally lost souls in the presence of the wrathful Lamb and the throne of God revealed in the sixth seal, what final catastrophe is there that needs to be considered with any fulness of contents? Only the lake of fire remains, and Revelation nowhere elaborates with fulness upon that state. Furthermore, the blessed estate of the righteous in glory has already been dwelt upon at length in the second parenthetical vision of chapter 7 by the time we reach 8:1. We conclude, therefore, that a brief summary statement only should be expected at the opening of the seventh seal. This is exactly what we have. It takes the form of an impressive period of silence; the fact that the duration of this period is described in approximate terminology—ῶς (ōs)—indicates that this was the impression made on the Seer and that the half-hour is not meant as a symbolic number. Surely if we put ourselves in the Seer’s place in the midst of these tremendous visions and especially at this point when the air has just been filled with the shrieks of the lost and praises of the saints, we must acknowledge that a period that seemed like a half-hour of purest silence would make and leave an indelible impression.
Granting that silence itself is a legitimate symbol, what better way could be found to present this symbol?—in fact, what other way? A priori, silence seems as legitimate a symbol as its opposite, a thundering noise. If the latter stands for God’s judgments going forth, why should not the former symbolize God’s judgments completed? This meaning is confirmed when we answer the question, “What is the connotation of silence in the prophetical language of Scripture?” In Isaiah 47:5 and 1 Samuel 2:9 the wicked are assigned to the silence of darkness, consequent upon the vengeance of God. In Zechariah 2:13 silence prevails because God has delivered his people and dwells in their midst.
Düsterdieck’s puerile objection against the silence obtaining on earth since it is said to be in heaven, is flatly contradicted by Zechariah 2:13 which relates “before Jehovah” with the silence on earth! This would leave the way open also to find Revelation 8:1 at least partially fulfilled in the silence of the lost in their eternal abode, or for a view like Fairbairn’s (see below).
Habakkuk 2:20 associates silence with God’s being in his holy temple. All of these ideas fit admirably into the final, eternal state which the seventh seal is required to symbolize. In the light of prophetical usage, this silence of Revelation 8:1 is a rich and comprehensive symbol, indeed. Fairbairn interprets: “The struggle of conflict is over, the noise and tumult of war have ceased, and the whole field lies prostrate before the one sovereign and undisputed Lord.”
2. Still another possible view which has at least as much to recommend it as Düsterdieck’s is that the silence represents a withholding of revelation. Revelation 7:13–17 corresponds very closely to Revelation 21:1–8. Now since the only revelation in the entire book that marks a material advance beyond what is related in the sixth seal and 7:13–17 is the final vision of the holy city immediately after 21:1–8, it may be that immediately after 7:13–17, in 8:1, we have silence because the time had not yet come to present this last crowning vision, even though the preceding material leads to that point.
3. There are grave flaws in Düsterdieck’s interpretation both materially and formally:
(a) He is forced to read into silence—with no semblance of biblical warrant—the idea of hushed, still excitement in anticipation of the coming trumpet judgments. But where is the information on the part of the heavenly host concerning coming judgments? To ground the anticipations of the heaven-dwellers, he must drag the vision of the seven angels with the trumpets forcibly into the half-hour period of silence and thus willfully ignore the fact that these angels are clearly separated as a distinct vision by the phrase “And I saw,” which is a common manner of dividing visions in Revelation.
Quite similar is the view of A. Pieters. Concerning the sixth seal he says: “In Scene 3 of this Act (see program) men begin to be aware of the gathering storm” (the removal of the heaven as a scroll, Pieters apparently considers a gentle spring zephyr). Then of the seventh seal, “So the hosts of heaven stand silent, in breathless expectancy, waiting for the solemn pageant to proceed. Notice that this silence is, again, a purely dramatic touch, having no prophetic or doctrinal significance in itself, but placed here because the principles of dramatic art require it.” Such extreme insistence on the resemblance of the Revelation to a drama cheapens the divine Word as much, if not more, than classifying biblical apocalyptic on a mere par with and as of one cloth with other early apocalypses which Pieters is careful to guard against. It is asking too much of us, to require us to cease comparing Scripture with Scripture to determine Scripture’s meaning, in favor of comparing Scriptures with the devices of the Greek stage!
(b) From a formal viewpoint it does not seem warranted to consider the cycle of trumpets as evolving from the cycle of seals. The trumpet cycle is clearly marked off as a formal unit by the phenomena of 8:5 which are repeated at the close of the cycle (11:19). Also, the seven-sealed book does not appear again, though—if the remainder of the visions constituted the contents of the seventh seal—we should expect that when its revelations were exhausted there would be a final reference to it, at least.
Furthermore, the ease with which 8:1 might seem to blend into 8:2 is altogether in keeping with other transitional passages in Revelation, which is simply an evidence of a good literary style. The transition from the trumpets to the next cycle is so smooth that there has been dispute whether 11:19 goes with what precedes or “should be the beginning of the next chapter, introducing a new vision.” Compare also the beginning of the bowls cycles (15:1); this major heptad is “another sign in heaven,” and thus blends with the earlier signs of the previous cycle (12:1, 3). Again, the last two major divisions have an affinity to the bowls’ cycle, for they are introduced by “one of the seven angels that had the seven bowls” (17:1 and 21:9). In so subtle a way the Revelation is even in its formal arrangement made a living, moving organism, rather than a row of detached blocks of material.
4. Even though it be granted that Düsterdieck’s view of the formal relation of the seventh seal and the trumpet series were correct, this would not at all militate against recapitulation. For instance, Milligan writes, “We cannot, therefore, separate the trumpets from the seventh seal. The former are not independent of the latter but are evidently developed out of it, although the succession is one of thought rather than time.”
Also, Düsterdieck’s interpretation of the half-hour silence, if accepted, does not put recapitulation into discard. Lenski understands the silence with Düsterdieck as the hushed expectation of the heavenly hosts but does not conclude that what follows is the contents of the seventh seal. Rather, the climactic nature of the sixth seal decides him on the need of recapitulation if the book is to continue.
But the shining example that all of Düsterdieck’s arguments do not avail against recapitulation is Düsterdieck. For in his view the great final catastrophe is not introduced immediately in the trumpet series but much later. Meanwhile the visions immediately evolving from the seventh seal describe “the trial of the patience of saints who are regarded as awaiting the day of the Lord.” When we observe that Düsterdieck admits that in the sixth seal “the day of the Lord begins,” it becomes apparent that Düsterdieck is himself a recapitulationist.
We reaffirm, in concluding this matter, that the cycle of seals brings us to the Judgment at the sixth seal and into the eternal state in the silence of the seventh. As to formal structure, the evidence is wanting for the view that the visions are arranged in telescopic fashion; and even were this not the case, the essential synchronous nature of the revelations of the visions would be unaffected.
TRUMPETS: The language describing what follows the sounding of the seventh trumpet is almost unanimously taken as depicting the close of history. “The kingdom of the world is become—ἐγένετο (egeneto)—the kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ.” (11:15). “We give thee thanks, O Lord God, the Almighty, who art and who wast; because thou hast taken thy great power, and didst reign. And the nations were wroth, and thy wrath came—ἦλθεν (ēlthen)—and the time of the dead to be judged” (11:17,18). “In the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he is about to sound, then is finished the mystery of God, according to the good tidings which he declared to his servants the prophets” was the preliminary announcement (10:7). To be sure there have been diehards of the successive historical school who have so far lost their bearings as to refer all this to the victory of the Goths and other Arians under Narses, or to the victory of Christianity over Judaism involved in the destruction of Jerusalem, and the like. But most interpreters have acknowledged the force of the language (which—together with 12:1ff.—compels some to accept the fact of recapitulation here, if nowhere else). Swete: “With the seventh trumpet blast the Kingdom of God has come and the general judgment is at hand. Thus, this section of the Apocalypse brings the course of history down to the verge of the Parousia.” Pieters: “This is, therefore, the triumphant consummation of the divine enterprise.” Even W. Scott: Chapter 11:18 “records the last historical action—the judgment of the dead. There is no history beyond it.”
Düsterdieck, Charles, and Beckwith admit that the language describes the consummation but call 11:15–18 proleptic and introductory. The third woe, or contents of the seventh trumpet, we are told, are not found in this passage but in the remaining visions of the book. As the trumpets were said to evolve out of the seventh seal, now 12:1ff. evolves from the seventh trumpet, and the bowls in particular are thought of as the third woe. But for this there is not a shred of evidence:
(a) There is nothing after 11:19 which is called the third woe or seventh trumpet. The third woe is not mentioned at 11:19 because it would sound ridiculously didactic.
(b) Charles vainly tries to prove that each of the three woes is properly prefaced by the prayers of the saints or a vision of the heavenly temple, which means that 11:15–19 is this preface, and the woe must follow. To do this he must identify the first woe with the first trumpet which is manifestly impossible in view of the subsequent 8:13 “woe, woe, woe, for them that dwell on the earth, by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels who are yet to sound.”
(c) Beckwith rightly insists that the third woe can no more be missing than one of the trumpets, but he refuses to see the third woe in 11:15–19, although he confesses that this leaves the precise calamity meant uncertain. “We should therefore expect immediately after the trumpet blast of v.15 some great calamity to be sent upon the world corresponding to the first and second woes, but this does not occur.” This is a gross underestimating of the contents of 11:15–19. Lenski well remarks, “To say that here no Woe appears is to ignore the fact that the destruction of the destroyers in the final judgment is a Woe greater than any other.” Furthermore, the vision which these verses contain consummates in the revelation of the ark of the covenant in the temple of God in heaven; this is no mere preparation for more historical events but signifies that the whole covenant is now fulfilled through the grace of our faithful God.
Thus, also we take it that in v. 15–19 we have the entire seventh trumpet complete. … Yet this seventh trumpet and third Woe, by placing us at the final consummation, involves all that now follows in further visions. But not in such a way that these visions follow in a temporal succession—all time has ended—but so that John and we see anew and with greater fulness all that the final consummation involves.
So Lenski aptly states the relation of the ensuing cycles to that of the trumpets as both parallel and progressive.
DEEPER CONFLICT: The closing vision of the Deeper Conflict division again pictures the end (14:14–20). A simple comparison of the vision with Matthew 13:39, 41; 24:30–31 is enough to settle this. [Also, in the symbolic numbers of 14:20, a thousand and six hundred are elements of absolute completion: 100, (the number of completion, 10, squared or intensified) times 16 (the number of the earth or creation, 4, squared or intensified).] “The revelations of vv.8–13 now culminate in a vision of the Parousia, represented as a time of general ingathering of the fruits of life,” is Swete’s comment. The opponents of recapitulation still flounder about in a mess of devices though making even further concessions here than at previous climaxes. Charles indulges in amending the text (he exscinds 14:15–17) and calls the rest “a proleptic vision of the preliminary Messianic judgment executed by the Son of man on the heathen nations which is described in detail in 19:11–16 and further apparently in 20:7–10, and under another form in 17:14”! (Why he refuses to call the phenomenon of recapitulation, which he seems to recognize in these passages, by the name ‘recapitulation’ is difficult to understand.) Düsterdieck again expressly discounts recapitulation while he admits that the vision “brings, it is true, a preliminary representation of the final judgment.” He prefers to call this another example of the proleptical character of the structure. Similarly, Beckwith grants that “the universal use of the figures employed here show that the judgment here symbolized is the great judgment of the last day.”  He refuses to solve the difficulty this brings to his successive arrangement of the vision as some critics do by “the supposition that the passage stood originally at the end of another apocalypse, or of an earlier form of our Apocalypse,” which is fine, but he can only say this “announces in anticipation the coming of the great catastrophe.”
At each new climax this talk of anticipations and preliminaries sounds more feeble. At previous climaxes we were told these evolved the ensuing material out of themselves; but here we must be willing to accept arbitrary statements to the effect that this full, detailed, striking vision admittedly symbolizing the Parousia is only an anticipation. There is no single vision in chapters nineteen and twenty that any more vividly depicts the final separation of the good from the evil and the punishment of the latter! Why not take the passage at face value and admit that since we are here at the end, to continue we must recapitulate?
BOWLS: The pouring out of the seventh bowl produces a devastating, cosmical, cataclysmic judgment with points of marked similarity to the visions of the sixth seal and seventh trumpet (16:17–21). The end of the world has come again. A great voice out of the temple and from the throne says, “It is done”—γέγονεν (gegonen) — the perfect tense eloquently describing God’s redemptive plan as fully executed and now followed by the predestined state of eternal blessedness accruing from that finished work of the Redeemer. (A more subtle mark of the finality of this judgment appears, as Beckwith indicates, in the seven-fold use of a form of μέγας (megas).)
The absolute finality of this judgment Swete makes relative to the course of the Roman Empire which he misinterprets Babylon to mean. However, he does show more insight into the scope of this symbol when he adds, “But Rome does not exhaust St. John’s conception of Babylon … other ages may witness the rise and fall of other mistresses of the world not less magnificent and depraved.” Beckwith at least places the vision properly at the close of the age for he acknowledges that it is the last form of Beastly power (Anti-Christ, to him) that destroys Babylon (Rome, to him). But he continues to minimize the significance of these climaxes, for he says of Rome, “she is overwhelmed in a ruin only implied here.” Of course, the subject of Babylon’s fall is treated more fully in the following chapters for that is their special theme, but it would take all the climax out of the progression within the judgments of the seven bowls of wrath to make the last a mere implication and not an actual description of the vengeance of Christ when he comes as a thief (16:15) to destroy the hosts of evil gathered for a last ungodly effort against God and the saints (16:16, compare 17:14; 19:19; 20:9).
FINAL JUDGMENTS: The division on Final Judgments (17:1–21:8) on any reasonable evaluation of the language brings us to the end of history again. Even H. Cowles, tenacious preterist, though claiming that even chapter nineteen refers to the destruction of the city of imperial Rome, at least grants that the final judgment is foreshadowed here. While there is general agreement that the main theme or emphasis of these chapters is the end of the age (though a recapitulationist does not overlook the fact that the beginning of the Gospel Age is also included in the scope—17:8, 10, 18; 20:1–3), interpretations vary greatly, of course, within the more limited scope of the end of the age, with the particular view to be adopted depending on whether the judgments on Babylon, the Beasts, Satan, and men are considered synchronous with one another, successive, or some combination of the two. Charles, Düsterdieck, and Beckwith refer 17:8 to the fall of Rome and mysteriously bridge the gap to the end of time in 19:1ff.—whether by prophetic foreshortening or by supposing the prophet was just mistaken in thinking it was the Antichrist of the end-time who would destroy Rome, probably matters little to these gentlemen. Indeed, Charles in this section raves much of sources and fragments and from chapter twenty on says, “the traditional order of the text in these three chapters is intolerably disordered and hopelessly unintelligible.” Such enlightening remarks serve well to indicate the problems that have long made these chapters the tinderbox of exegetical warfare, but they are of no value for an understanding of the text. However, all these men grant the point we desire to make here as a link in the case for recapitulation, i.e., in its climactic element this section presents the Final Judgment.
OBSERVATIONS: As for our own view of these chapters, the following observations may suffice:
1. Not without bearing on the chronological relations of these visions is the question, in connection with the fall of Babylon, of how we are to understand the fact that the Beast which courts the harlot, in its final state and in association with the ten kings, hates and destroys her. A very obvious question over which the commentators for the most part brush hastily. In answering it, exegetes fail in direct proportion as they have denied or minimized the religious significance of Babylon and have dwelt upon the seductiveness of the world—the “lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the vainglory of life.” It does no good to point out that Judas the betrayer at last was not happy with the thirty pieces of silver and hanged himself—thousands of other ungodly men have faced destruction in full pursuit of the philosophy “Let us eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we die” and thus have to the very end clung with no revulsion of feelings to the seductiveness of the world. This, history’s last hour, looms large in importance in the eschatological perspective of Revelation. Satan is loosed from the abyss; the mightiest anti-Christian powers are marshalled for this last desperate conflict with God. Why should Antichrist scorn any anti-Christian agency’s help at such an hour? The only sound basis for explaining the Beast’s strange change in attitude toward Babylon is the consideration of the change in its own character which Scripture indicates. Whether we understand the Antichrist to be a personal being or the last form of world-imperial opposition to Christ, we must acknowledge that the Bible associates Antichrist with self-deification and non-tolerance towards all other worship, true or false. In 2 Thessalonians 2:4, the man of sin “opposeth and exalteth himself against all that is called God or that is worshipped; so that he sitteth in the temple of God, setting himself forth as God.” In Daniel the little horn of the fourth beast not only speaks words against the Most High and wears out his saints (7:25), but also, he magnifies himself above every god (11:36ff.—the basis of 2 Thess. 2), honoring only the god of fortresses—that is, physical might or war as such. In Revelation 13 again, the last form of the Beast, i.e., to whom it is given to overcome the saints (13:7), is given authority that “all that dwell on the earth shall worship him.” (13:8). During the gospel age, Satan tolerates any false-gospel or religion or apostate church pointing men to some sort of being or principle of benevolence beyond. But when the last hour of intensified conflict has come, Satan endeavors to concentrate the energies, efforts, might, and worship of the whole world in his Antichrist. Therefore, the Beast at the last not only persecutes the true followers of the Lamb but also destroys all other pretenses at religion—that is, Babylon.
Even though this interpretation of Revelation 17:16 be rejected, it is plain that there must be some succession from 17:16 to 19:19–21, for the Beast and ten horns cannot be destroyed before they themselves make the harlot desolate. A possible difficulty of harmonization presents itself in the prima facie impression of the sixth and seventh vials (16:14–20), for there the Beast’s forces are gathered to the battle (16:14–15) which we identify with that of 19:19–21, in the sixth vial, whereas the wrath of God is poured out on Babylon in the seventh vial. However, these bowls of wrath are not successive even though the last two go beyond the others to the end of the age. The first five are no doubt synchronous judgments, and we may allow for interlocking of details in the last two. Probably the meaning is that Antichrist rises to power gathering his forces, then destroys Babylon (Revelation 19:19ff. omits this since Babylon’s fall has already been disposed of in chapters seventeen and eighteen), and is presently brought to naught himself at the manifestation of the presence of Christ.
2. The careers of the harlot-Babylon, the Beast, and False Prophet were intertwined in chapter seventeen where it was revealed that the Beast would destroy Babylon; and the Lamb, the Beast. Then in chapter eighteen the separate strand of Babylon’s fall was elaborated, with the point of view now being that her fall, though executed by the Beast, was the Final Judgment of God. Then in chapter nineteen the other strand of the Final Judgment of Christ on the Beast and False Prophet is developed more fully, which involves (see 19:19–20) a recapitulation of 17:11–14. This recapitulation covers, however, only the climactic battle, not the whole New Testament age. Now in chapter twenty the Final Judgment on Satan is the theme, and since his career during the gospel age has not yet been described in this major division, by way of necessary background for a proper presentation and understanding of this final judgment, as in the cases of Babylon and the Beast in chapter seventeen, that career is covered, directly in 20:1–3 and by implication in 20:4–6. There is, therefore, another example of recapitulation of the Christian dispensation, with 20:1–6 synchronous with 17:3–6, 8a, 9, 10a. Also, Satan’s judgment (20:7–10) is thus parallel to 17:8b, 10b–14, and 19:11–21. We do not detain ourselves with a full discussion of the question of Chiliasm but would merely add that in the symmetrically synchronous structure of the entire Revelation as propounded in this paper a millennium understood in the premillennial school’s sense would stick out like a very sore thumb.
3. The reaping of the harvest of the earth’s redeemed and the gathering of the clusters of the vine for the great winepress of God’s wrath (14:14–20) finds a striking parallel in the casting of the reprobate from the presence of the Great White Throne into the lake of fire and the blessing of the elect in the new heaven and new earth where “God himself shall be with them” (20:11–21:8). Why is the past career of individuals, not found written in the book of life, described as preparation for their judgment? Their lives have no meaning and their individual careers no unity apart from the great anti-Christian powers whose dupes and agents they were; but these have already been fully disposed of (17–19), and all that remains is that those who were enslaved to them and meekly followed them in life should now share their calamity and follow them in death. Also, in the case of the redeemed, to relate their earthly course were to relate them anew to their foes; but why resurrect them again since God has cast them in final judgment into the second death? The synchronism in these last two instances is therefore limited in scope to the day of final judgments as pictured in this main division and elsewhere in the “Revelation.”
4. For the sake of completeness the nature of the climaxes of certain parenthetical visions is briefly indicated here:
(a) Before the opening of the seventh seal are two consolatory visions. The second (7:9–17) is a grave problem for all seeking strict succession in Revelation. Grotius thinks of Syrian Christians after the fall of Jerusalem, 70 A.D.! Elliott finds the fulfillment before 395 A.D. but is compelled to speak of the realization of glory by the collective body of the church of all generations. Barnes also, though arriving at 410 A.D. in 7:1–8, admits 7:9–17 is “an episode having no immediate connexion with what precedes or with what follows” and picturing the totality of the redeemed in heaven. Swete talks as usual of mere anticipations of “the issue of the final judgment” and recognizes that “the whole of the episode … finds echoes in the last two chapters of the book.”
Conclusive indications that this is the finale of the redemptive program of God are:
(i) The remarkably close parallel of 7:15–17 with 21:3–6, which follows the cosmic regeneration (20:1,2).
(ii) The great tribulation is past (7:14), which, on any interpretation of the phrase—comprehensive of the whole gospel age or restricted in some peculiar way to the end time—means the gospel age is completed.
(iii) The innumerable and universal multitude indicate the great commission is fulfilled and the end come.
(b) The episode of Revelation 11:1–13, immediately before the seventh trumpet, also is concluded by age-ending events. (For a detailed discussion of this, see below, “Eschatological Perspective of Revelation.”)
(c) Towards the close of the section, the Deeper Conflict (12–14), is a vision (14:1–5) which is perhaps not strictly parenthetical, and yet since it is complete in itself and not the climax of this section, this may be the proper place to treat of it. It presents the Lamb and one hundred forty-four thousand redeemed on Mt. Zion (compare Hebrews 12:22–24). Swete tries to make it out as an earthly scene, but Düsterdieck acknowledges,
In like manner, just as in ch. vii:9 sqq., an inspiriting prospect of the heavenly glory of believers abiding faithful in the great tribulation still impending is afforded before this trouble itself is stated, so also in the first part of ch. xiv. (vv.1–5) a scene is represented in which a multitude of departed believers … manifests the glorious reward of the victors.
Though we do not agree with all the details of this analogy, the exegesis of 14:1–5 is essentially correct.
The number of the redeemed is certainly the symbolic number for the completed church of both testaments; the whole church thus in heaven is a feature of the consummation. With this finality accord all the details. The redeemed are viewed as having been purchased out from—ὰπό (apo)—the earth and from men, and as having overcome spiritually (i.e., they “were not defiled—aorist tense—with women,” v. 4), and therefore they are following—present tense—the Lamb “whithersoever he goeth,” v. 4, (compare 1 Thess. 4:17, “so shall we ever be with the Lord.”).
The evidence has now been presented to demonstrate that the climax of each of the major formal divisions of Revelation from 4:1 to 21:8 brings the reader to the close of history. This hardly seems coincidental. At each of these points the opponents of recapitulation have sought to escape the force of the argument by claiming that these passages did not form part of the basic succession but were sidelights, interludes, anticipations, introductory summaries, and the like. Such excuses might carry some weight in those visions which are classified above as parenthetical. It seems plausible enough to consider these as anticipations of a final order of things which actually arrives only with later chapters in the Apocalypse, but as granted to John beforehand to sustain his spirit, as it were, through the visions of tribulation and woe to come. Even in these three instances, however, it should be noted that each of them occurs in immediate connection with the closing vision of their cycle (except that in chapter fourteen, a trio of angelic warnings intervene). Since the final triumph of God’s kingdom is depicted in these closing visions immediately following, it seems more likely that the assurance contained in these parenthetical visions has primarily a backward reference to the calamitous judgments described in the earlier stages of their cycle. Thus, they corroborate the interpretation of the division climaxes as being actually climaxes of what has preceded rather than anticipations of what is yet to come.
Where it is applied to all the climaxes of the major divisions, this “anticipation” evasion is altogether arbitrary. Especially since it requires an instance of exegetical violence impossible to defend in order to maintain this theory at one point—and that the very earliest climax, i.e., the sixth seal—the suspicion is hard to avoid that the preconceived notion that the end of the age cannot be presented before the end of the Apocalypse determines the interpretation of all the major climaxes. Furthermore, what is the need of so many anticipations? Is the author afraid he will lose his reader’s attention unless he keeps reminding him that great things are coming? If the earlier climaxes are all mere anticipations, the reader must be disappointed when he finds that the real thing at the end has not so very much more to add to the pictures of the “anticipations”! As for those opponents of recapitulation who tone down the obvious finality of these climaxes to mean something just short of history’s close, the Book of Revelation becomes grotesquely futuristic. If at 6:12–17 the day of judgment dawns and then even at 14:14–20 it is only a preliminary phase of the Judgment that has arrived, concerning what within so meager a scope of time has the author been so verbose in the intervening chapters? Can it possibly warrant so much attention?
Why not therefore accept the synchronous structure which the climaxes demand? At the climax of each cycle the universe is shaken to the foundations, or Christ returns to earth in Final Judgment, or the hosts of heaven triumphantly proclaim that God’s wrath has been poured out and his kingdom consummated—but all such, we are told, is a letdown from what we should be expecting! It is but a little prelude. We must realize that the seventh seal includes all the remainder of the book, and so again with the seventh trumpet—in spite of the facts that the seventh seal, seventh trumpet, etc. are never alluded to again and that each cycle is beautifully rounded off in its seventh member, and that the succeeding cycle is always a new beginning marked by a formal introduction. That the final Judgment section of the book goes beyond the previous climaxes in intensity and fulness of treatment is quite in keeping with parallelism. For each parallel section has its own theme to deal with, and also our position is that there is a logical progress in the intensity of God’s judgments as found in the successive cycle-themes.
Recapitulationists are often likely to defend their position, or rather attack their opponent’s position, with facts which fit into the idea of synchronism perfectly, but which might also be construed plausibly in the opposing arrangement. For instance, at 12:1ff. almost everyone is frank to acknowledge that the birth of Christ is symbolized. This is altogether in accord with the parallel-series structure which teaches that each cycle takes us back to the beginning of the Christian era as well as climaxing with the close of the era. But Beckwith also can find a proper place for it, since he considers all of chapters 12–14 “as part of the preliminaries to the events which culminate in the great conflict with Satan and his agents and the overthrow of these, now to be enacted in the seventh trumpet series.” It is quite a simple matter, therefore, to point out how all the material demonstrates a synchronous structure (which to be sure creates a very strong presumption for that view), but it is an altogether different proposition to demonstrate conclusively the falsity of a non-synchronous structure. I believe that there are only two ways of combatting a view of the structure such as Beckwith suggests (we have used them partially in the conclusions we drew from the evidence gathered from the climaxes): 1. To point out the unwieldly arrangement which you are driven to in order to avoid the logical consequences of the accumulation of evidence for synchronism; 2. To demonstrate by exegesis the impossibility or unlikelihood of chronological succession within those visions where Beckwith allows for succession.
1. To illustrate the extremely awkward balance of material necessitated by the successive-events school, we briefly consider Beckwith’s general evaluation of Revelation 1–18. Revelation 1:10–3:22 is an “introductory vision designed to prepare the Church to meet the future foretold in the other visions.” Chapters 4 and 5 furnish “the foundation and assurance of all that follows.” Chapter 6 contains “preparative and premonitory manifestations which come before the immediate forerunners of the End.” Chapter 7 is a prelude to the seventh seal. Chapters 8 and 9 present the first six trumpets of sore judgments” which more immediately precede the End” and prepare for it. Chapters 10 and 11 are “an interlude which serves to prepare for the new vision and lends impressiveness to it,” and they conclude with the seventh trumpet which merely “proclaims the period of the End.” Chapters 12 and 13 are “preliminaries.” In chapter 14 the first vision “is anticipatory; it stands outside of the events moving toward the last issue”; the announcements of the angels are “prefatory to the march of events which is to begin again in chapter XV”; the last vision also must be understood as part of a paragraph which “announces in anticipation the coming of a great catastrophe.” Chapter 15 contains an “announcement, anticipatory hymn of praise, and immediate preparation for the outpouring of the plagues.” We are it seems quite ignorant or timid and failed to get prepared enough in the previous chapters and needed this more immediate preparation of chapter 15. But now that we are considered sufficiently prepared for the great bowls of chapter 16, they come! —but turn out to be only for the purpose to “specifically prepare the reader for the great events which are to follow.” To Beckwith these “great events” are the fall of Rome and destruction of Antichrist in chapters 17–19. But strange to say after the wearying array of anticipations, announcements, introductions, preludes, proclamations, preparations, and pre-what-have-yous, even the fall of Rome does not actually appear at all! For after chapter 18 Beckwith admits, “After these manifold assurances of the coming destruction, the Prophet passes over in anticipation to the end, without allusion to the beginning or progress of the destroyer’s work”! Yes, the destruction of Antichrist is really pictured—but of course not before an angelic chorus sings “anticipating, as if already come, the full establishment of the Kingdom” of God. The dispensationalists turn most of Revelation into their “Great Tribulation”—Beckwith, the “Great Anticipation.”
2. Before chapter 17, succession is allowed by Beckwith only in the visions immediately following upon the opening of each seal, the sounding of each trumpet, and the pouring out of each bowl. We have already dealt with the climaxes of these series and have seen how Beckwith is forced to adopt a telescopic structure for which there is no warrant to avoid the fact that history is finished several times en route. Also, at the sixth seal it has been observed that Beckwith simply begs the question in the face of the evidence contradicting his view. The following features also do not accord with the successive events view:
a. In the sixth bowl (16:12–16) we are brought to the gathering of the kings of the world to the war of the great day of God, the Almighty, which is beyond doubt the same event as is described in 19:19. John must, therefore, have recapitulated between these two points. Beckwith does not avoid the issue by suggesting the gathering takes place in 16:12–16 and the battle itself is described in 19:19ff.  The gathering is also described in chapter 19, and the results of the battle already appear under the seventh bowl. Düsterdieck is likewise hard-pressed here and speaks of this as an allusion and compares it to the mention of the Beast from the Abyss in 11:7 before he actually came on the scene in chapter 13, claiming that both are proleptic; he also indulges in non-existent distinctions between indications and express statements. Even this much, however, is a fatal concession for a system that had already been compelled to narrow its successive passages into so exceedingly meager a portion of the Revelation.
b. In the early members of the seals-trumpets-bowls heptads, i.e., those members which do not specifically describe the end of the age, general principles of God’s rule of the world or his judgments on evil-doers are presented, not specific historical events. Such general agencies as war, natural calamities, famines are at work at all times throughout the gospel era. They may be viewed from different points of view and possess logical progression from seals to bowls, but this logical progression does not work itself out in orderly succession or uniformly everywhere down through the centuries to the end; for in any period of history, God’s providence may be observed working from the various points of view presented in Revelation in the cases of different individuals and groups. Concerning this matter, especially in connection with the seals, Fairbairn says, “It must ever appear arbitrary to limit to single epochs or particular individuals what has purposely been left indefinite in these respects on the sacred page. Nor can it by any possibility be done so as to produce general confidence and satisfaction.” Beckwith recognizes the indefiniteness also, at least in part, for he believes the seals should be regarded as “the beginning of woes” spoken of by Jesus in his Olivet discourse. (See also excursus below on Milligan’s view of this relationship). This is true of the first five seals—the last two seals bring the Lord’s return itself and its consequences—but these woes continue to the very threshold of Christ’s coming. There is then no room for a development in the form of God’s judgment; it can now come only in one last overwhelming stroke. The progress in the trumpets and bowls beyond the seals cannot therefore be a chronological succession but rather an increase in intensity logically, and this can be given its proper elbow room only by making the three series of judgments synchronous and each covering the gospel age in its scope.
Prof. Milligan has gone to an extreme in finding correspondence between Jesus’s discourse in Matthew 24 and the seals-trumpets-bowls series of Revelation. He does well to point out the use of recapitulation in Matthew 24, which prepares the mind to expect the same in the prophecy of Revelation. (The same purpose is served even more strikingly by the synchronism which obtains in the Old Testament apocalyptic book, Daniel, especially chapters 2 and 7.) Also, the emphasis on grounding the interpretation of Revelation on more didactic portions of scriptural prophecy is well placed. In fact, in spite of questionable steps en route, his conclusions concerning the formal structure of Matthew 24 seem well taken. Also, in a general way, the seals do correspond in respect to them with the first section of Matthew 24, i.e., 24:4–14, the history of the church and world in its broad features. But in the following respects there is a forcing and straining of the material:
1. Milligan would make the theme of the second section of Matthew 24 (vv. 15–22), which is supposed to correspond to the trumpets, God’s judgments on the world in contrast to the apostate or false church, which he takes as the primary subject of the next section, Matthew 24:23–28. The obvious reference, however, to the fall of Jerusalem in 24:15–22 (not to speak now of double references or prophetic foreshortening), and especially the parallel use in Luke 21:23, “for there shall be great distress upon the land, and wrath to this people,” makes it plain that the apostate church of the Old Testament (possibly used here also as typical of the apostate church of the New Testament) is the main theme of this section—not the world.
2. His main subject for Matthew 24:23–28, the apostate New Testament church, may stand. However, he fails to establish that the supposed corresponding cycle in Revelation, i.e., the bowls, shares this primary subject. Some might take exception to his assuming Babylon to symbolize the apostate church, but in this I think he is on the right track. Granting this, he points to Babylon in the third bowl judgment and says, “the object of judgment mentioned under any one member of a group throws light upon the object of judgment under its other members, although under them it may not be so distinctly noted.” The fatal objection to the application of such a principle here is that the object of judgment is distinctly noted in the first, fifth, and sixth bowls as “the men that had the mark of the Beast,” “the throne of the Beast,” and “the dragon … Beast … and false prophet … the kings of the whole world” respectively, which are clearly designations not of the apostate church but the world. That is, the bowl-judgments are more comprehensive than Milligan’s system of correspondence will allow.
In a similar vein, but on a much larger scale of correspondence, Milligan defends the thesis that the whole structure of Revelation is patterned in its arrangement of ideas on the structure of the life of Christ in the Gospel of John. Thus, both John’s Gospel and Revelation start with a prologue containing the main ideas to be developed in the main body. John 1:19–2:11 sets forth the Redeemer on the field of history before the conflict; Revelation 2–3 depicts the church in the world before the struggle. (But the marks of a severe struggle are already evident in the church). John 2:12–4:54 shows Christ in victory over sinful hearts and diseased bodies, as assurance against the coming struggle (but in John 4:1 the hostility has already started); Revelation 4–5 presents assurances of the church’s victory. John 5:1–12:50 describes Jesus’s conflict with the Jews and Revelation 6:1–18:24, the church’s struggle with the world. (But this is exceedingly general, and this in the bulk of both writings). John 13–17, Jesus pauses with his disciples at the end of a struggle substantially finished; Revelation 19:1–10, the church pauses to celebrate Babylon’s fall and to consign her enemies to death. (But it is arbitrary to single out this as an outstanding instance of a pause after victory in Revelation, especially in view of its synchronous structure.) Revelation 19:11–22:5, new conflict, victory and epilogue; John 19–21, cross, resurrection and epilogue. (But again, it is arbitrary to select only these chapters of the Apocalypse as describing these subjects.)
Milligan has hold of a truth here that is altogether too neglected in the commentaries. That truth is not that the logical structure of John’s Gospel and Revelation agree in any striking way; it is unfortunate that he burdens the truth he has with this forced, artificial construction which cannot do justice to either Gospel or Revelation. But the truth epitomized in the quotation-statement, “ ‘As thou didst send me into the world,’—that is the Gospel;—‘Even so sent I them into the world,’—that is the Apocalypse,” is as instructive as it is attractive.
On the subject of recapitulation much more might be said. The evaluation of the problems already discussed would, however, be determinative of our view elsewhere since they cover the most crucial passages. If these features of Revelation do not recommend the synchronous structure to the student of this book, it is not likely that the consideration of any other passages would. Now, to avoid the impression that parallelism is the most prominent characteristic of Revelation and thus obscure its true nature, I would like to suggest briefly some manifestations of the equally important progressive-climactic course of thought evident in the Apocalypse.
PATH TO HEAVEN: The outline, of the book here adopted, itself suggests one feature of the climactic order of thought. Revelation 1:9–3:22 pictures the church in the world and Revelation 21:9–22:5, the church in glory. Thus understood the visions are properly bounded instead of dribbling off, as regards the thought content, into loose ends at start and finish. Also, this makes prominent one of the, if not the, main purposes of all the visions of judgment and woe included within these bounds. To be sure, it is through such judgments that Christ brings every foe of his to be the footstool of his feet, but it is by this same process that his church is purified from every defilement and made to be his holy bride. This process of cleansing, this transformation of the church, a pilgrim below, into the church at home in the Father’s glorious mansions above, is adequately introduced and concluded only if the contrast of these two terminal main divisions of Revelation is recognized. Only when the church on earth, partaking of the sin and imperfection of this world, and the finished glorious creation of God’s redemptive program are thus presented in all their contrast, are the ways and the wisdom of God in suffering his people to tread their persecuted path through this life justified to men.
This instructive feature of the book is lost in an outline like Hendriksen’s, for the crowning vision of the church in glory is thrown in on his view simply as part of the seventh main section, the part that brings that section to the usual climax. Thus, it is on a par merely with the climaxes of the other divisions, and its obvious distinctiveness is lost. It is clear to all that the seven letters constitute a separate division of the book for their epistolary form is distinctive, and they form one of the obvious heptads. In the case of 21:9ff., however, it may possibly be urged that it should be included as a mere continuation of 21:8 and thus become part of the division on Final Judgments. We will, therefore, defend the construction adopted here, especially since this affords the opportunity to confirm the contrast between the seven letters’ picture of the church and this last vision of the redeemed in glory, as being the author’s specific intention.
1. It is true that the subject matter of 21:1–8 and 21:9–22:5 is quite similar. In the nature of the case this should be expected since every series ends with the close of the age or eternity, making it necessary, if a final vision of the consummation be added, that it blends into or parallels the previous climax in this way. Also, 21:1–8 has not a right to belong to the last unique vision, since it is not unique but bears a very close resemblance in thought and language to other climaxes such as 7:9–17 and 14:1–5. As for its general similarity to 21:9–22:5, this is but another evidence of the author’s skill in making his transitions logically as well as formally smooth.
2. There is a distinction that should not be overlooked. After the brief statement that John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God made ready as a bride adorned for her husband, v. 2, the remainder of the revelation in 21:1–8 concerning the future of the saints is by audition, not direct vision. On the contrary, the whole of 21:9–22:5 is visionary in form.
3. It may seem to some that this is an insignificant or superficial consideration, but in light of the use of the phrase in the structure of Revelation, I believe some weight must be given to the fact that in the introduction to the vision of 21:9–22:5 John says that the angel “carried me away in the Spirit”—έν Πνɛúματι (en Pneumati)—to see the holy city. This is the fourth and last appearance of such a statement. The evidence shows that this phrase is used most discriminatingly, since it appears in the introduction to what are probably the four fundamental sections of the book. It occurs in 1:10 which is introductory to the other (of what we are calling) terminal divisions of the Revelation, the Church Imperfect in the World. It occurs again in 4:2, after the seven letters and in the introduction to all the visions of the church’s conflict with the world and God’s non-final judgments on the wicked. Thirdly it occurs in 17:3 in the introduction to the Final Judgments, the outcome of the conflict. This affords a very striking parallel in the entirety of its introduction (17:1–3) to the last case (21:9–10), as well as in the contrast of its subject matter, representing the outcome of the apostate church whereas the outcome of the faithful church is found in 21:9ff. In 1:10ff., the church is in the midst of the world; in 21:9ff., the church has been taken out of the world. In 4:2ff., the church is in conflict with and overcome by the world; in 21:9ff., the church is at peace having overcome the world. In 17:3ff., the church apostate appears transformed to the world; in 21:9ff., the church glorified appears perfectly purified from the world. In these simple contrasts is the heart of the Apocalyptic message.
4. The unique appropriateness of 21:9–22:5 to serve as the closing contrast to the opening picture of the church in this present evil world (Revelation 2–3) appears in a detailed analysis of the fact that the imperfections attending the residence of the church on earth are conspicuous by their absence or their opposites in Revelation 21:9ff.:
In Ephesus (2:2) were false prophets; the holy city (21:14) has walls founded on the twelve true apostles of the Lamb.
In Philadelphia (3:9) and Smyrna (2:9) were false Jews; the gates of the new Jerusalem (21:12) are inscribed with the names of the tribes of true Israel.
Pergamum dwelt where Satan’s throne was (2:12); the church at last shall dwell where God’s throne is (22:1).
In Sardis, the most part was dead (3:1); in the new Jerusalem are “only they that are written in the Lamb’s book of life” (21:27).
It was necessary that the churches of Asia should serve as lampstands in the world (1:20; 2:5); in glory “they need no light of lamp, neither light of sun, for the Lord God shall give them light,” (22:5, compare 21:23), “and the lamp thereof is the Lamb. And the nations shall walk amidst the light thereof” (21:23–24).
The church of John’s day was filled with impurities—heresies and spiritual fornication (2:14–15, 20), imperfection and lukewarmness and liars (3:2, 9, 16); the church of the eternal day is marked by purity (21:18,21), the absence of “anything unclean, or that maketh an abomination and a lie” (21:27), indeed it is patterned after the Holy of Holies (21:16).
In the cities of Asia, the servants of God must face persecution (2:8–10; 3:10) resting on God’s promises to overcomers; in the heavenly city, the saints reign for ever and ever (22:5), and the overcomers inherit the promises (2:7, compare 22:2; 2:11, compare 21:27 and 22:3; 2:17, compare 22:4; 2:26–28, compare 22:5 and 21:22 [22:16]; 3:5, compare 21:27 and 22:5; 3:12, compare 21:10 and 22:4; 3:21, compare 22:1 and 22:5).
To make this analysis is practically to exhaust the contents of both divisions. So exhaustive a contrast is not a coincidence. Of course, these elements of contrast are found elsewhere in Revelation (see below), but in 21:9–22:5 there is an accumulation of points of contrast that indicate distinctiveness.
5. When to the facts of (a) the a priori desirability of a closing section to parallel by contrast the picture of the church in the seven letters, and (b) the actual extraordinary qualifications of 21:9–22:5 to be such, we add the previously observed affinity of 21:1–8 with the section beginning at 17:1 (including the further observation now that the appearance of the new heaven and new earth in 21:1 further associates 21:1–8 with the preceding since the fleeing away of heaven and earth (20:11) clamors for such a reappearance before this main division closes), the case for a new major division at 21:9 seems to be established. (It is interesting to notice that thus understood the conclusion of this Final Judgments section (21:1–8) closely parallels the end of the seven seals section (7:9–8:1); the close of the trumpets (11:19), and bowls (16:17–21) sections are akin, and the lone middle section of the Deeper Conflict is unique in its conclusion.)
It thus appears that there are five synchronous sections in Revelation, each of which ranges over the whole gospel dispensation and climaxes with a definite presentation of the eschatological finale, and in which as a whole the emphasis gravitates increasingly toward the end of the age, and which are bounded on either side by a section which, while not describing a period of time or subject matter not elsewhere alluded to or developed, yet does not fulfill the qualification of the others of covering the whole New Testament age. The final section obviously does not at any point take us back to the beginning of the New Testament dispensation. The seven letters just as obviously do not present a definite picture of the eschatological finale. It is perhaps the greatest single weakness of Hendriksen’s view that he is compelled to make the mere applicability of the seven churches of Asia’s conditions to the church of any period in the New Testament age the entire basis for the parallelism of this division with the others. In so doing he must ignore the following: (a) These letters formed an aspect of John’s experience in receiving the entire Revelation, distinct from all that follows. (b) They do not, and in the nature of the case could not, picture the end as the following series do at their climaxes. (c) The formal introductions of material contrasted to the seven letters as “the things which must come to pass hereafter” is evident in 4:1, re-emphasizing the break in the experience of the prophet at this point. The terminal sections are therefore not synchronous with the central five sections, but do not thereby mar the symmetry of Revelation but rather enhance it formally, while they also ground and crown the logical development in the book.
In this feature we have the most comprehensive example of progress of thought in the Apocalypse. As the Lord who bought her endured the contradiction of sinners against him and the pain of the cross before entering into the glory and joy that was set before him, so the church must carry the cross of affliction from within and from without until she is rewarded at length with the crown of life. This fundamental contrast and the progress inherent in it is made prominent in the opening and closing divisions of Revelation—the church imperfect and suffering in this evil world, and the church perfect and triumphant in that holy city Jerusalem which cometh down out of heaven from God.
The foregoing has made the distinctiveness of the terminal sections clear, but I trust in so doing the usual error in this regard has been avoided, namely, isolating the seven letters too completely from the rest. We have observed that the progress evident between the terminal sections illuminates the purpose of the intervening visions of judgment, and thereby all is logically knit together. It should also be observed that while 4:1 serves as a plain boundary line between what precedes and follows, this is not an absolute boundary even chronologically. In the following visions of “the things which must come to pass hereafter,” we are time and again brought back to the ministry of Christ and the inception of the church’s mission which of course precede the “things that are” as John beheld them in the church of his day in the seven letters.
PATH TO HELL: The progress which inheres in Revelation is exhibited in another way which appears as we further guard the seven letters from the isolationist policy, though not forgetting their distinctiveness, by a recognition of their germinal nature. There is not a major character (not speaking now of divine persons, though this were no exception) in Revelation which is not introduced and viewed from the point of view of church life in 1:9–3:22.
1. There was of course within the seven churches the true church invisible which the Head of the church could commend (2:2, 6; 2:9–10; 2:13; 2:19, 24; 3:4; 3:8–10; 3:19). Their ultimate estate of glory and the fulfillment of the promises made to them has already been discussed, i.e., the crowning vision of the New Jerusalem. But also throughout the book this body of the faithful appears, sometimes in similar visions of the crown attained (6:10–11; 7:9–17; 11:11–13; 14:1–5; 14:14–16; 15:2–4; 20:4–6; 21:1–8), sometimes suffering for their testimony more clearly than in the seven letters (6:9,11; 11:3–10; 12:13–17, compare 13:17; 18:24; 19:19; 20:9), or as protected of God and distinguished from the world, thus meeting the exigencies of new developments in the context (7:3–8; 11:1), or as the body of whom is Christ according to the flesh (12:1, 2, 5).
2. Also within the seven churches of Asia could be found false, apostatizing influences (2:2, 6; 2:9; 2:14–15; 2:20–23; 3:1; 3:9; 3:15–17). This leaven is seen working increasingly elsewhere in Revelation (9:1–19; 11:2). The full, vile description and the final destruction of this agency is described towards the close (14:8; 16:19; 17–18) and seems to afford more delight in its fall to the hosts of heaven than the destruction of any other foe of the church (19:1–5), just as its plain and full manifestation in that wilderness where he had last seen the radiant woman occasions the Seer more surprise than any other revelation (17:6).
3. The world outside, the imperial power, is reflected in the seven letters in the persecution of the churches (2:9–10; 2:13). There is a very clear progress in the extensive development of this subject. In the fifth seal (6:9–10) the presence of Christian martyrs is evidence of the world’s manner of receiving the gospel and dispensations of God’s providence in the first four seals (compare 7:14). In chapter 11 is a remarkable anticipation and development of this theme in the Beast from the Abyss slaying the two witnesses. Then in chapter 13 the Beast is fully described in his Satanic agency, hellish power, and hatred of the saints (compare 14:9; 16:1,5,13,14,16). Its relation to Babylon is expounded, and its own entire history illuminated in chapter 17 (vv. 3–13) and its defiance of God in 17:14; 16:16; and 19:19. The climax of this career in judgment is fully descried in 19:11–16, 20–21 (compare 6:15; 11:15; 14:11; 16:19; 17:14).
4. Almost inseparable from the imperial power in Revelation is secularism, man’s prophethood gone astray, the wisdom of this world which genders materialism, false science and philosophy, and buries the souls of men in the interests of this world, enslaving them especially to the power of this world as manifested in imperial force. I believe the baneful effect of this secular drag upon the church appears in the loss of the Ephesians’ first love (2:4), in the deadness and imperfection of the Sardis church (3:1–2), and in the lukewarmness that prevailed in Laodicea due to their dependence on their riches in the things of this world (3:15–18). Then beyond the seven letters, it is this wisdom of the world which opposes the foolishness of the gospel and makes the prophet’s experience bitter in sounding forth the good news to many peoples, nations, tongues, and kings (10:10–11). On the other hand, this same worldly wisdom causes the merchants of the nations and the kings of the people to lament the destruction of the false apostate religion (chapter 18). Again, this worldly propaganda is seen for what it is, a fellow-beast of the imperial agent of Satan, deceiving men by its lamb-like features but enslaving them to the first Beast by its dragon-like claims—it is the false prophet (13:11–18). With the Beast and Satan, this false prophet gathers the nations to their destruction in the last conflict with God (16:13–14, 16) and is cast itself into the lake of fire at last (19:20).
5. The deep, underlying Satanic power set against the purposes of God is also specifically indicated in the churches of Asia (2:9,13, 24; 3:9). A widely recognized element of progress is the increased intensity of the spiritual conflict beginning at 12:1. Satan is now plainly exposed as the bitter foe of Christ and his people; he is the unseen source and strength of all the persecuting efforts of Beast and false prophet (12:17, compare 13:1, 11). When at the end they are overwhelmed by the Lamb, this constitutes the final overthrow of Satan also. (If national imperial power as such is utterly and finally uprooted from the world, i.e., the Beast is cast into the lake of fire, at 19:19, how can Satan still be using the nations as his agents of hostility against the saints in 20:8 if chronologically this is a thousand years later? He cannot; the author has recapitulated between these points.) As a vision of Satan appears just before the specific introduction of his agents (chapters 12 and 13)—though chronologically there is no difference since it was through the Beast in the form of Rome and Babylon in the form of Judaism that Satan opposed Christ at his birth and in his earthly ministry (12:3ff.), so also when these specific agencies have completely disappeared (19:20) before the wrath of the Lamb, Satan is brought to the reader’s attention again and his destruction is pictured—and as in the inception of the anti-Christian efforts so now in their final overthrow, Satan is not to be chronologically separated from his agents, but rather their fall is his—19:20 and 20:10 are one. Being thus bounded by these two visions of Satan, the intervening careers of the Beast and False-Prophet are forcefully portrayed as Satanic in their source, character, and end; and thereby all is eloquently climaxed.
What is germinal in the seven letters develops in the progress inherent in Revelation. What is at first barely suggested as working behind the scenes and producing the effects observable on the surface of the earlier visions, presently appears itself on the surface fully described; then hastens on to judgment. To be sure the various climaxes throughout Revelation present the final judgment; but there is an increasing emphasis on the identity of the basic powers involved in this judgment, until in 17:1–21:8 this progress in thought is consummated with each hostile character being dealt with in turn with finality so that they never again darken the Seer’s vision. To summarize, there is progress from the seven letters’ germinal forms on to the end in the clarity of the identity and nature of the agents producing the Apocalyptic history, in the fierceness and depth of the world’s hatred for Christ, climaxing in one last unrestrained effort which is visited with Judgment, in the metamorphosis of the falsely professing church into a state of unrestrained harlotry, as well as in the perfecting of the church, the bride of Christ.
PATH OF WRATH: The counterpart to the progress in ungodly activity is naturally progress in the judgments of God. This is a rather comprehensive feature and widely acknowledged. Involved in this deepening of judgment to meet the deepening of sin are the seals-trumpets-bowls heptads. There is an increasing ominousness in the thoughts of opening seals, of sounding trumpets, and of pouring out bowls of wrath. Again, the fraction which is typical of the judgments are successively one fourth, one third, and in the bowls which are called “the last” plagues, judgment is no longer fractional but complete in its effects. Also, the identity of the objects of judgment becomes increasingly specific, in step with the same feature in the progress of the world’s hostility. This matter might be further elaborated, but since it is generally accepted, we conclude by indicating that the climax of this process is the great Final Judgments, and thus sin and punishment climax, and disappear together.
No doubt the careful seeker could point to many other evidences of climactic arrangement in the Apocalypse. The three features indicated above are, however, the most comprehensive examples, namely, the germinal nature of the seven letters with the gradual development of the characters and careers of the forces detectable therein, especially in their hostility to God; the increasing severity of the judgments of God; and the perfecting of the faithful church and her deliverance from the present evil world into the glory and joy of the eternal city of God.
“We have no right, therefore, in interpreting the Apocalypse, to interject into it the thought either of a long or a short development of events. It is a representation in which an idea, not the time needed for the expression of the idea, plays the chief part.” In accord with this and enlarging upon it, Milligan finds in the Apocalypse three great ideas—conflict, preservation, and triumph; the first two are correlative, contemporaneous, and issue in the third at the manifestation of the Lord.
The main point here is well taken, but in the whole there is an over-simplification of the data. There is the preserving of the elect in their conflict with an evil world, and there is the ultimate triumph of the church in the final overthrow of her persecutors at the appearance of Christ in flaming fire taking vengeance, but there is also the recurring feature in the visions of a great crisis or hour of trial for the church and temporary yet dismaying success by the Satan-controlled enemies of God’s people. The presence of this crisis period just before the final triumph of the elect makes it necessary to qualify Milligan’s denial of the legitimacy of finding any intimation of the duration of this last age before the consummation, at least to the extent of recognizing two distinct periods within this age, the first of which would be relatively long. This is not to say that John necessarily conceived of the elapsing of centuries as necessary to the fulfillment of his prophecies; rather, it is pointed out to clarify the eschatological structure presented by Revelation.
The sequence of a long period of preservation and witnessing by the church, terminating in a brief period of control by the Satanic hosts, which is in turn followed by the vindication and glorification of the saints and destruction of their foes at the second advent, is manifested in the following features of Revelation.
CHAPTER 11: The “two witnesses represent the Church in her function of witness bearing,” and to them it is given to prophesy twelve hundred and sixty days. Their testimony completed, they are slain by the beast who comes up out of the abyss and lie dead for three and a half days. The hellish glee of the foe is then cut short by the resurrection and ascension of the witnesses and the great earthquake.
Irrespective of what interpretation of the symbols be adopted, it is undeniable that the suggested structure of testimony, trial, and triumph lies on the surface of the passage. Furthermore, in favor of the interpretation that this vision comprehends the whole interadvental age and that the hour of trial here depicted transpires immediately before the Parousia of Christ, rather than that the vision presents a typical episode fulfilled whenever and wherever the Word is proclaimed, we urge the following:
a. The 1260 days is elsewhere in Revelation used to denote the period of the church’s protection from the world’s hostility in its entirety.
b. The scope of the witnesses’ ministry (v. 9) affects all peoples, tribes, tongues, and nations. The inference seems fair that the gospel has therefore been preached in the uttermost parts of the earth, those whom Christ purchased from these very same groups (5:9) have been gathered into the fold, and that therefore the end is due. When the church’s testimony is finished as it is here (11:7), the end must come—Matthew 24:14.
c. The world power is called the beast out of the abyss. It is true that the abyss might be thought of as the ultimate origin of the beast at any time during its career. However, this description is especially apt at that last hour when it is thoroughly controlled by Satan who has just been loosed from the abyss (20:1, 7ff.). Furthermore, this is the only view that has warrant in Revelation itself, for in the other instance where the Beast is so described (Rev. 17:8ff.), its coming up from the abyss occurs after the present period when it is functioning through its sixth and seventh heads but apparently is not functioning in as openly an infernal manner, and this coming up from the abyss is in order to its going “into perdition” (compare 19:20).
d. There is a finality in the symbolism of the ultimate triumph of the witnesses that indicates that the day of salvation is past. The nations are just as decisively deprived of another chance to be confronted with the gospel in the manner of the ascension of the two witnesses as in the silencing of their mouths in death. Although such symbolism in itself should not, perhaps, be pressed, yet it may at least be insisted that such a strict interpretation of the character of the symbolism is the only interpretation in accord with the statement of 11:7. Also, the symbolical meaning of the numbers used to describe the earthquake judgment, in connection with the triumph of the witnesses, most consistently construed, also suggests the finality of this event (i.e., The “tenth” denotes a minor completeness which betokens complete collapse, and 7000 denotes divine, absoluteness of completion.)
e. Against these considerations, whatever possible difficulty might be attached to the fact that there remains a group, “οἱ λοιποι” (hoi loipoi), after the earthquake, would not seem sufficient to alter the proposed interpretation. Indeed, their reaction of fright heightens the effect of disaster, and their giving glory to the God of heaven, though similar to the language of 16:9 where repentance is the plain connotation, is best understood in the light of a passage like Proverbs 1:24–28, as a calling on God (which keeps the force of the language) which is, however, too late (which meets the demands of the context). That the language cannot be pressed as conclusive evidence of conversion appears from the fact that “every created thing” ascribes glory unto God and the Lamb (5:13).
CHAPTER 20: Again, regardless of interpretation (except in cases where the thousand years is deprived of temporal duration altogether as in A. Kuyper or W. Milligan) this passage bears on its surface the framework of eschatology defended here. There is the long period of Satan’s restraint, the little season when he is loosed, followed by his final destruction. An elaborate refutation of the Chiliastic scheme is not the purpose here; I would only remark that the presence in the passage of that very eschatological structure which elsewhere in Revelation obviously refers to the present gospel age is an argument in favor of an amillennial view. This view is here assumed to be correct, and we go on to observe the parallel between the structure of 20:1–10 and 11:1–13.
a. As the witnesses were given authority for a comparatively long period to complete their testimony to the nations, so Satan is restrained for a long period from so controlling the nations that they can crush the church’s testimony to the gospel as she seeks to penetrate to the uttermost part of the earth in obedience to her Lord’s command. The idea of completeness symbolized by the thousand years corresponds to the fact in chapter 11 that the witnesses are silenced only “when they shall have finished their testimony.” (v.7).
What may be said to Milligan’s objection that it would introduce confusion to designate the same period of time as both three and a half years and thousand years?  To say the least, Milligan with his very strong—and commendable—insistence on the symbolical significance of numbers in Revelation is in no position to offer such an objection. It is of the genius of his system to say with us that though the same period is in view it is not its length but its character primarily that is suggested by these numbers of years. Furthermore, it is clear that whenever 1260 days, forty-two months, or 3½ times is used, earthly history is the vantage point; when one thousand years is used, the reference is to the spiritual realm, i.e., Satan in the abyss or the saints in the intermediate state.
b. It has already been remarked in the discussion of the Beast from the abyss in chapter eleven that the short crisis phase in which it overcomes the witnesses is illuminated when paralleled with Satan’s coming up from the abyss after the one thousand years for a little season to paralyze the efforts of the saints (Rev. 20:8–9a). The entire symbolism of these verses is adequately accounted for by Hendriksen, “The meaning then is this: the era during which the church as a mighty missionary organization shall be able to spread the gospel everywhere is not going to last forever; not even until the moment of Christ’s second coming.”
c. Those who made war on the two witnesses, and rejoiced over them, who were from all the nations, presently perished; so, Gog and Magog, the nations in the four corners of the earth, having succeeded in encompassing “the camp of the saints about” are devoured by fire from heaven and Satan who gathered them is cast into the lake of fire—the hard-beset saints overcome.
Milligan presents two further objections to the view here expounded: 1. “How can it be said of them (i.e., departed souls) that in whatever era they departed they ‘shall reign with Christ a thousand years’ if by these years we are to understand the whole period of the Christian dispensation and that alone?” Milligan here assumes an atomistic viewpoint wholly foreign to the Book of Revelation and introduces the idea of a progressive enlarging of the living-reigning group which does not seem to be in the apostle’s mind in this passage at all. Rather, John views the church above generically and characterizes its intermediate state as one of living and reigning throughout. 2. Milligan further contends that Satan cannot be thought of fairly as bound in respect to the deceiving of the nations since “that action has never ceased. He has been their betrayer and destroyer in every age.” Milligan himself urges that in the cross and resurrection of Christ, “Satan in his character as the deceiver of the nations has been in principle, completely, and forever, overcome.” But why not acknowledge further that this victory of Christ and securing of all authority in heaven and on earth is most intimately connected with the command (which is a prophecy also) to the disciples to go and “make disciples of all the nations” (Matt. 28:18–19), transforming the Jewish kingdom into a universal one? The importance of this activity in the eschatology of Scripture can hardly be overestimated; certainly, it does not overstate this mighty expansion of God’s kingdom among the nations to say that Satan was bound and that he might not deceive the nations until the gospel age was completed.
THE CAREER OF THE BEAST: The Beast in its final form has been mentioned already. When we correlate all the evidence bearing on its activity in relation to the saints, the eschatological outlook which marks Revelation appears again. By way of introduction, we make the following observation. Clearly, Jesus Christ is portrayed in this book perfectly fulfilling the three-fold office of prophet, priest, and king on behalf of his people. Such is stated in brief compass in 1:5–6 and is elaborated in the activities of Jesus symbolized throughout the Apocalypse. His prophetic office is exercised in his whole relation to John in revealing the contents of Revelation, as well as more specifically in the seven letters and the opening of the seven-sealed book (though this last involves execution as well as revelation). His priestly office appears in the recurring symbol of the Lamb slain and in the consequences of the victory of his death, such as casting out Satan (12:7–10), arraying the saints with the robes of his righteousness (6:11; 7:9, 14), purchasing the elect (14:4), and in his close association with the heavenly temple (21:22, 23; 22:1, 3). His kingly office is exercised most clearly in his overcoming all his foes and those of his people (5:2, 16; 12:5; 17:14; 19:11ff., especially 16). This is of course not at all exhaustive but makes the point.
Now I believe that just as in Christ we behold man’s intended three-fold office perfectly executed (not to mention now the redemptive, vicarious character of his work), so in the three main earthly foes of Christ’s church we behold the ultimate in the prostration of man’s three-fold office: the first Beast in respect to kingship; the second Beast, to prophethood; and the harlot-Babylon, to priesthood.
Man as priest is supposed to dedicate the world unto God. In the harlot-Babylon, man has aspired unto God’s prerogatives and has dedicated the riches of creation and civilization unto himself. Therefore, we find the long, detailed account of the merchandise of the world (Rev. 18) which was employed for the arraying of the harlot (especially 18:14, 16). Under this symbol falls all false religion and especially the apostate church; instead of leading men to God as they pretend, these cause the nations to commit spiritual fornication—“to drink the wine of the wrath of her fornication” (14:8). Such, the kingly power endures the peoples of the world to do, until it throws off all restraint at the end-time. Then there can be no more supporting (17:3) of institutions which make even a pretense of pointing to a supreme Being beyond, for then the kingly-power claims all worship for itself, and the result is the harlot’s desolation (17:16). This interpretation of the harlot-Babylon as the prostituted priesthood or false-apostate religion seems almost conclusively confirmed by the remarkable similarity of detail in the character and career of the apostate Old Testament church as represented under the name of Jerusalem in Ezekiel 16:1–42: Jerusalem was an insatiable harlot multiplying her whoredoms unto all the nations (vv. 15, 26, 28–29); she was decked with all the world’s goods (vv. 16–19); and her lovers at length turn on her in wrath (vv. 37–41), which Jehovah will gather them to do (v. 37)—just as it was God who put it into the hearts of the Beast and the nations to execute his will by destroying the harlot-Babylon (Rev. 17:17).
The second beast is plainly designated as the false-prophet. As true interpretation in accord with the true exercise of man’s prophethood would have led to wisdom and understanding, it is natural that the efforts of the false interpreter are aimed at deception and ignorance. The description of this false-prophet’s activity closes with an appeal to those who are in Christ exercising the office of prophet aright—“he that hath understanding” (13:18)—to see through the deception of the false-prophet, that is, to see that in leading men to worship the beast the false-prophet leads not unto ultimate truth, unto God, but into the chaos of creaturehood—“Six hundred and sixty and six” (Rev. 13:18).
But we have digressed a long way from our present interest of tracing the career of the figure symbolizing the prostitution of man’s kingly office to Satan, the figure of the Beast. The undeniable derivation of the details of the description of this beast (13:2) from Daniel 7, where the beasts admittedly represent actual world empires, puts the burden of proof on the interpreter who denies that unregenerate man’s kingly activities as displayed in governments and building of empires are symbolized by the beast of Revelation. Lenski is on the right track in insisting on the symbolical meaning of the number of the heads and horns and in insisting that the beast be not confined to any particular state or continent; but he goes too far into the abstract in his generalization of this figure as “the whole antichristian power” without embodying this power in the general concept of empires or kingdoms.
The course of this imperial power is sketched three times: 13:3–7; 17:8; 17:10–14.
A. Revelation 13:3–7. The Beast appears to John on the world scene at the beginning of the gospel age during which the radiant woman is protected in the wilderness; at least, such seems the obvious inference of a comparison of 12:13–17 with 13:1. This is confirmed by 13:5, “There was given unto him authority to continue forty-two months,” which is the equivalent of the woman’s wilderness sojourn (12:6). When the beast appears, it has already suffered a death stroke but has—or is in this reappearing from the sea—revived. This death stroke is best understood (by analogy with Daniel 2) in connection with the decisive victory of Christ represented in the previous chapter (see especially 12:7–9). Satan was decisively defeated, bound in certain respects—but not as yet finally overthrown. So, the beast suffered its mortal wound, but God gives it authority “to continue” during the gospel age (13:5). This corresponds to the long period of the church’s testimony; also, the activities ascribed to the beast and his false prophet, i.e., their signs, blasphemies, demanding worship, etc., in chapter thirteen, should be understood as covering this same period. Yet, there is nothing which prohibits the thought that these activities issue in a climax which involves a last great crisis for the church. In fact, such an end-time crisis is demanded by a comparison of 13:7, 15 with 11:7 where the making war, overcoming and killing of the saints, was after the 1260 day—or missionary—period. In this passage the course of the beast is not carried far enough for us to witness its final overthrow, unless we read on into chapter 14 and see it implied there. As far as it goes, however, this passage demonstrates the eschatological framework of the Apocalypse here defended.
B. Revelation 17:8. Every reader is struck by the multitude of Satanic substitutes for the true work of God appearing in Revelation. In this passage, the name used of the first and second persons of the trinity, “He which is, and which was, and which is to come,” (1:4, 8) is counterfeited; “the Beast that thou sawest was and is not, and is about to come up out of the abyss, and goeth into perdition.” To change the temporal point of reference (as Lenski) from the time of the angelic interpretation of the vision (which is something far different than seeing the vision) to the time of Christ’s ministry introduces confusion. The “is not” refers to the time of John’s receiving this explanation, i.e., the late first century; its terminus ad quem (final point in time) is clarified in 17:10–11, and its terminus a quo (starting point in time) is understood in the light of the beast’s death-stroke as explained above. It occasions no real difficulty that the beast in chapter 13 is pictured as active during the gospel age, whereas here in 17:8 it “is not” during this same period. An analogous case is the binding of Satan during the gospel age (chapter 20), while at the same time he is cast down to the earth and is very much active (12:13). That the beast “was,” would therefore refer to Old Testament activities before Christ came and delivered the “death-blow.” The “is about to come up out of the abyss” is still future, just as the fact that Christ “is to come” is future. (Beckwith agrees that this is a last, future development and associates it with 19:11–19. He identifies this form of the beast as the antichrist. Though probably not the antichrist himself, but rather the force he heads up, yet surely this stage is the acme of the beastly development.) As there is a sense in which Christ is now come in his kingdom, so also the beast may be thought of as present in the present imperial powers (compare chapter thirteen), and yet “is about to come,” just as Christ also in a final sense will come at a future day. (Notice that the deceptive parousia of the man of sin [2 Thess. 2] immediately precedes the true parousia of Christ.) Then the abyss-like character of the beast becomes manifest, according with the loosing from the abyss, for this last little season, of Satan, the power working in the beast. Although, finally, the structure of the sentence (v. 8) makes “and goeth into perdition” coordinate with, rather than subordinate to, “and is about to come up out of the abyss.” I believe an examination of the next passage will reveal a very close relation between the two, besides proving further that this coming up out of the abyss pertains to the future final crisis.
It has appeared again, then, that the career of the beast consists of the long period of restraint of evil—“is not,” the short crisis period—“is about to come up from the abyss,” and the final victory of Christ over the beast—“and goeth into perdition.”
C. Revelation 17:10–14 In 17:10 the seven heads of the beast are explained. The number seven is as symbolical here as anywhere else in Revelation. The number five of necessity shares in the symbolism of the seven of which it is a part and therefore refers in a general way to all B.C. activity of the beast. The sixth head-king, “the one is,” is the imperial power of John’s day. The seventh had not yet arrived but would later and would continue a little while, which refers to developments still future to the imperial power of John’s day generally. The absolute necessity of generalizing here should warn against literalism in the first five heads, especially since there is no particular scriptural ground for identifying five—no more, no less—empires before Christ, as the diversity of such attempted identifications abundantly testifies.
The final development of the seven—έκ τῶν ἑπτά (ek tōn hepta)—is the beast, appearing as an eighth empire; and as the culmination of this process of iniquity goes into perdition. It should be noted that in 17:11 the beast’s substitute for the divine name contains only the first two elements (compare 11:17, where when Christ has come the last clause of his title is also omitted): ὃ ἦν καì οὐκ ἔστιν (ho ēn kai ouk estin); but taking the place of, and therefore surely the equivalent of, the καì μέλλει ἀναβαίνειν ἐκ τῆς ἀβύσσου (kai mellei anabainein ek tēs abussou), is the statement the beast was an eighth kingdom, climaxing the seven, and as such going into perdition.
This clinches two of the above contentions. 1) The οὐκ ἔστιν (ouk estin) of 17:8 refers to the present gospel age up until the finishing of the church’s testimony. 2) The going into perdition is most intimately related to the coming of the beast from the abyss, which of necessity makes the openly abyss-like character of the imperial power a phase of the end-time. This confirms our interpretation of chapter eleven where we found no mere typical experience of the gospel but the total course of the witnessing church, in so far as we based the interpretation on the presence of the “beast from the abyss” at the close. This end-time appearance of the beast, and its going to perdition is elaborated in 17:12–14 where in association with the ten horn-kings the beast wars against the Lamb who overcomes them (compare 19:19–21; 20:10).
Again, therefore, we have the long period of the comparative restraint of evil (sixth and seventh heads, 17:10); the hour of crisis (the beast as the eighth head and the ten horns, 17:11–13); and the victory of the Lamb (the beast goes into perdition, 17:11, and the King of kings overcomes, 17:14).
As a comprehensive exhibition of this same structure, we examine the three heptads of seals, trumpets, and bowls. In the first five seals, and the first six of both trumpets and bowls, is that long period of calling to repentance, especially by the judgments of God on evil doers. There is a progression in the severity and finality of these judgments which intimates that there must be a corresponding aggravation of the fury of the hostile world which is persistently unrepentant. Everything points to a final crisis clash, but this does not appear as a clearly defined hour of trial for believers within the first two heptads. However, in the bowls’ series, the world’s hostility is more specifically and frequently referred to than in the seals and trumpets (16:2 “men that had the mark of the beast, and worship his image”; 16:9, blasphemy and lack of repentance; 16:10, “throne of the beast”, blasphemy, no repentance). We are well prepared then for a mention of the climax of this worldly opposition, and it appears in the sixth bowl. This pictures the kings of the whole world gathered together “unto the war of the great day of God, the Almighty. … And he gathered them together into the place which is called in Hebrew Har-Magedon” (16:14, 16). This battle is the same as that of 19:19 and 20:8. Furthermore, in view of the parallelism of these heptads, this final war may be readily supplied as the climax crisis in the seal and trumpet series also. Nor is it wholly unprepared for there. At the opening of the fifth seal (6:9–10) appeared martyrs, revealing that the world was rejecting the call to repentance inherent in the first four seals. Also, after the sixth trumpet (9:20–21) is a comprehensive statement of the failure of the nations to repent in spite of the physical and spiritual judgments visited on them in the trumpets-series. Then, of course, the final triumph of the righteous through the power of the Almighty appears in the sixth and seventh seals (6:12ff., 8:1), the seventh trumpet (11:15ff.), and the seventh bowl (16:17ff.), where are described the cosmical changes, the terror of the unrepentant in the hands of an angry God, and the consummation of God’s kingdom.
The church which has faithfully proclaimed the Word to the wicked as God visited judgments upon these wicked through the long gospel age is tested in a final Har-Magedon of distress but is again seen triumphant in Christ, as we survey these three heptads.
We merely suggest as a possible very general case of the apparent eschatological structure proposed here, the entire structure of the Revelation. We do not forget the fact of synchronism which with its many interlocking elements forbids a simple consecutive outline of the book under the three proposed headings without a detail being out of place. Still, it seems to be a fair conclusion that in respect to the main emphasis of the thought, chapters 1–16 deal more with the state of affairs during the gospel age, and in chapters 17–22 the idea of God’s judgment predominates increasingly. Also, from the closing of the first of these two divisions to the middle of the second are concentrated almost all of the specific references to the final manifestation of the world’s Satanic hatred of Christ—16:13–16; 17:8–14; 19:19; 20:8–9. The whole of Revelation in a general fashion shares the eschatological structure which more specifically appears in its various parts.
To leave the matter here would display the plant with its flower but would deprive it of its source of life. The Revelation does not so display its eschatological perspective but roots and grounds it in the historical manifestation and ministry of the eternal Son of God, the Lamb of God slain before the foundations of the world. The opening vision presents the overwhelmingly glorious figure of the “one like unto a son of man” who says “I am the first and the last and the living one; and I was dead, and behold I am alive for evermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades. Write, therefore!” All of the things which John shall see, the things that are and the things which shall come to pass hereafter—the whole book of Revelation—unfold as the consequence of the historical career of the eternal, Living One. Again, when the seven letters to the churches have been delivered and the visions proper are to be disclosed, they are prefaced by the disclosure of “the Lion that is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David” who “hath overcome,” even the “Lamb standing as though it had been slain,” “in the midst of the throne” and adored in union with him who sits on the throne by all the heavenly host and every created thing in heaven, on earth, and under the earth. He has overcome—let the last days proceed. Again, in the heart of the Revelation, the man child’s life and victory over Satan passes in review. Before the church’s arch-foes are introduced bringing in the deeper spiritual conflict in the latter portion of the Apocalypse or her final victory elaborated with crowning glory, it is said of her Christ that by reason of his rebuking Satan through his ministry of suffering on earth the time of his authority “is come.” Because Jesus Christ lived, died, and rose again, there is a church with a testimony for the nations, there is a hatred which will one hour reach a climax on the part of the unbelieving, unrepentant world which refuses his kingly call, and there will be a final and everlasting triumph for God and his redeemed.
Beckwith, Isbon Thaddeus, The Apocalypse of John, New York: Macmillan, 1919.
Benson, Edward White, The Apocalypse, London, New York: Macmillan, 1900.
Brown, David, The Structure of the Apocalypse, New York: Christian Literature, 1891.
Charles, Robert Henry, Revelation of St. John, International Critical Commentary, New York: Scribner, 1920.
Cowles, Henry, Revelation of John with Notes, New York: D. Appleton, 1873.
Düsterdieck, Friedrich, Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Revelation of John, (Meyer’s Commentary on the New Testament), New York, Funk & Wagnalls, 1887.
Fairbairn, Patrick, Prophecy, Viewed in Respect to its Distinctive Nature, its Special Function, and Proper Interpretation, Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1865.
Hendriksen, William, More than Conquerors, 3rd ed., (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1944.
Keil, Carl Friedrich, The Book of the Prophet Daniel, in Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament by C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, translated by M. G. Easton, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1872.
Kuyper, Abraham, The Revelation of St. John, translated from the Dutch by John Hendrik de Vries, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1935.
Lange, Johann Peter, Revelation of John, New York: Scribner, 1874.
Lenski, Richard Charles Henry, Interpretation of St. John’s Revelation, Columbus, OH: Lutheran Book Concern, 1935.
Milligan, William, Lectures on the Apocalypse, London: Macmillan, 1892.
________, The Book of Revelation (Expositor’s Bible) (New York: A. C. Armstrong, 1900).
Pieters, Albertus, The Lamb, the Woman, and the Dragon: An Exposition of the Revelation of St. John, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1937.
Scott, Walter, Exposition of the Revelation of Jesus Christ, 4th ed., London: Pickering & Inglis, n.d.
Swete, Henry Barclay, The Apocalypse of St. John, 2nd ed., New York: Macmillan, 1907.
 This text is the ThM thesis of Meredith G. Kline for Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, PA, 1946.
 William Milligan, Lectures on the Apocalypse (London: Macmillan, 1892), 100.
 William Hendriksen, More than Conquerors (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1944), 25.
 Hendriksen, 47.
 David Brown, The Structure of the Apocalypse (New York: Christian Literature Co., 1891), 31ff. The source of Brown’s three objections is a quote from Marcus Dods, Introduction to the New Testament (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1888), 243–44.
 Brown, 31–32.
 Brown, 31.
 Brown, 28.
 Brown, 31.
 Cf. Hendriksen, 42–43.
 Matthew 24:29–30; Mark 13:24–26; Luke 21:25–27; cf. 2 Peter 3:10–12.
 Henry Swete, The Apocalypse of St. John, 2nd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1907), 95. So also Isbon Beckwith, The Apocalypse of John (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1919), 266.
 Friedrich Düsterdieck, Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Revelation of John (Meyer’s Commentary on the New Testament), (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1887), 260–63.
 Düsterdieck, 260–63.
 Düsterdieck, 262.
 Patrick Fairbairn, Prophecy, Viewed in Respect to its Distinctive Nature, its Special Function, and Proper Interpretation (Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1865), 407.
 Albertus Pieters, The Lamb, the Woman, and the Dragon: An Exposition of the Revelation of St. John (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1937), 124.
 Pieters, 131.
 Pieters, chapter 2, especially 31–32.
 Pieters, 157.
 Milligan, Lectures, 51.
 Richard Lenski, Interpretation of St. John’s Revelation (Columbus, Ohio: Lutheran Book Concern, 1935), 266.
 Düsterdieck, 263.
 Düsterdieck, 233, line 21.
 Swete, 146.
 Pieters, 157.
 Walter Scott, Exposition of the Revelation of Jesus Christ, 4th ed., (London: Pickering & Inglis, n.d.), 245.
 Düsterdieck, 328ff.
 Robert Charles, Revelation of St. John (International Critical Commentary), (New York: Scribner, 1920), 292.
 Beckwith, 606ff.
 Beckwith, 608.
 Lenski, 356.
 Lenski, 358.
 Swete, 188.
 Charles, II, 18.
 Düsterdieck, 404.
 Beckwith, 661–67.
 So, Milligan, Lectures, Hendriksen, Lenski.
 Swete, 226.
 Swete, 159, 286.
 Swete, 686.
 Henry Cowles, Revelation of John With Notes (New York: D. Appleton, 1873), 9.
 Charles, II, 437.
 So, Carl Friedrich Keil, The Book of the Prophet Daniel, in Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament by C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, trans. by M. G. Easton (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1872), 461–67.
 Compilation of views by Johann Lange, Revelation of John (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1874), 11.
 Swete, 100–106. So, also, Beckwith, 540; Düsterdieck, 252.
 Düsterdieck, 389–90.
 See Lenski, 249–50.
 Beckwith, 275.
 Beckwith, 255–85.
 Beckwith, 661.
 Beckwith, 286.
 Beckwith, 685.
 Düsterdieck, 44.
 Düsterdieck, 419.
 Fairbairn, 415.
 Milligan, Lectures, 42–59.
 Milligan, Book of Revelation throughout; Lectures, 61ff.
 Milligan, Lectures, 69.
 So, Fairbairn.
 See Milligan, Lectures, 104ff.; and Fairbairn, 415 (seals); 424 (trumpets); 427 (vials).
 Milligan, Lectures, 153.
 Swete, 100–106.
 See Lenski, 348, 358.
 So Lenski, 349.
 Milligan, Lectures, 208.
 Hendriksen, 234.
 Hendriksen, 208.
 Milligan, Lectures, 209.
 Milligan, Lectures, 216.
 Lenski, 386.
 See Milligan, Lectures, 110–14.
 Lenski, 501.
 Beckwith, 397.
 It is possible that the little time, χρόνον μικρόν (chronon mikron), during which the number of the martyrs was to be fulfilled, is one with the little time, μικρὸν χρόνον (mikron chronon), during which Satan was to be loosed after the thousand years, and that we have, therefore, in the fifth seal a specific reference to the final crisis.
Meredith G. Kline (1922–2007) was a minister in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church who served as a professor Old Testament at Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Massachusetts, and Westminster Seminary California in Escondido, California. Ordained Servant Online, December 2021.
Contact the Editor: Gregory Edward Reynolds
Editorial address: Dr. Gregory Edward Reynolds,
827 Chestnut St.
Manchester, NH 03104-2522
Electronic mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ordained Servant: December 2021
Also in this issue
by John W. Mallin III
by Danny E. Olinger
by Alan D. Strange
by Robert Letham
by Bryan D. Estelle
by T. David Gordon
by John Donne (1572–1631)
© 2022 The Orthodox Presbyterian Church